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June 2023 Volume 9 Issue 2

1. To Study the Comparison of Different Phenotypic Methods by E-test, Cefoxitin and Oxacillin Disc Diffusion test for Detection of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates at a Tertiary Care Hospital, Uttar pradesh

R.Sujatha, Nashra Afaq

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Introduction: MRSA strains have become a severe clinical and epidemiological problem in recent years, as resistance to this antibiotic suggests resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. The aim of the present study was to compare the conventional methods against the E-test, Cefoxitin and Oxacillin disc diffusion method to determine the best phenotypic method.

Aim and Objective: To Study the Comparison of Different Phenotypic Methods by E-test, Cefoxitin and Oxacillin Disc Diffusion test for Detection of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates at a Tertiary Care Hospital, Uttar pradesh.

Material and Methods: This was a cross sectional study conducted in the Department of Microbiology at RMCHRC, Mandhana, Uttar Pradesh for a period of 1 year i.e, February 2022 to February 2022. A total of 210 isolates of S. aureus were identified using the biochemical test from the clinical isolates such as pus, swab, blood, wound and urine etc. The Comparison of Different Phenotypic Methods including E-test, Cefoxitin and Oxacillin Disc Diffusion test for Detection of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates was done accoding to the CLSI guidelines 2022.

Results:  A total of 210 S.aureus isolates were identified from a total of 965 clinical samples in which 58 isolates were identified as the MRSA isolates in clinical specimens.  In this study, different phenotypic methods were used to detect MRSA wherein the best result was found from E-test (oxacillin) 59 (39%) Compared by CDD method 59 (38%), ODD 50 (31%) out of 210 isolate S. aureus growth. The ratio of Males 35 (60%) was more compared to the Female with 23 (39.6%) with the maximum age of 21-40 been affected the most.

 The gold standard method was chosen to be the E-test.  It was also observed that isolates including MRSA were highly susceptible to teicoplanin and linezolid.

Conclusion: The molecular technique is too expensive for patients to afford. Due to its low cost Compared to PCR, the E-test is more affordable and straightforward to perform, most effective substitute for regular usage in most clinical laboratories, in particular in underdeveloped nations.

2. Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Enterococci in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kanpur, UP

Anjali Tiwari, R. Sujatha, Nashra Afaq

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Background: Enterococci are important agents of nosocomial infection, ranking as the second most common organisms causing complicated urinary tract infections, bacteremia, endocarditis, intra-abdominal and pelvic infections, wound and soft tissue infections, neonatal sepsis, and rarely meningitis. Infections by enterococci have traditionally been treated with cell wall active agents in combination with an aminoglycoside.

Material and methods: The present study was a cross-sectional study in which a total of 1132 clinical specimens, were obtained during the period of 6 months from January 2023 to June 2023. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done by Kirby Bauer’s disc diffusion method according to the CLSI guidelines 2022.

Results: During the study period of 6 months, 42 enterococci were recovered from 1132 different clinical samples, accounting for an infection rate of 3.07%. Among 42 enterococcal isolates, 22 (52.3%) were obtained from urine, 03 (7%) from blood 10 (6.8%) from pus 10(23.8%) from sputum 1(2.4%) and 6 (14.3%) from foley’s tip. The predominant isolates were E. Faecalis 36(85.7%) followed by E. faecium06(14.2%).In the antibiotic susceptibility pattern, most of the enterococcal isolates were predominantly sensitive to 100% vancomycin and High-level gentamicin and high level streptomycin followed by linezolid.

Conclusion: Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were the predominant species. It is necessary to implement infection control measures like antimicrobial stewardship, especially restricting the use of antibiotics to a minimum.

3. Identification and isolation of various pathogens from endotracheal tip secretions and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern at tertiary care hospital, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh

Isha Yadav, R.Sujatha, Nashra Afaq

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Background: Nosocomial infections are most common in intubated patients and it is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among the patients admitted in the intensive care unit (ICU).

Aim and Objective: The aim of our study is to identify the etiological agent and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern from the intubated patients.

Materials & Methods:  This was a prospective study for a period of 6 months i.e, from January to June 2023 among mechanical ventilated patients admitted in the ICU ward. Microbiological culture and AST was performed from the endotracheal secretions samples which were transported in the microbiology laboratory according to the CLSI guidelines.

Results: A total of 37 endotracheal secretions samples were cultured in 6 months in which Acinetobacter baumanii (62%) was the most common isolate followed by Klebseilla pneumonia (24%). It was observed that no gram positive bacteria were isolated.

The AST pattern showed that only polymyxin B and colistin were 100 % sensitive followed by tigecycline and aztreonam.

Conclusion: Our observation provides the useful information about the endotracheal tip culture and the most common etiological agent associated with it. Endotracheal tip culture could be a useful and reliable tool in the identification and diagnosis of respiratory tract infections in ICU patients.


4. Oestrusovis larvae, Human a accidental host: A Case Report.

Arpita Kushwaha, R.Sujatha, Nashra Afaq

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A Sheep bot fly Oestrusovis larva is an obligate parasite of sheep and goats. Mainly it causes myiasis in animals but occasionally in humans; ophthalmomyasis caused by this fly and is seen in rural areas, where small ruminants and humans live in close proximity.Oestrusovis is a parasite during the larval phase of its life cycle. Larvae develop into three instars, known as L1, L2, and L3; Most of the fly’s life is spent as larval instars, ranging from one to nine months in length depending on the climate and season. Shortest generation times occur in warm, wet climates. External ophthalmomyiasis refers to larvae on the conjunctiva, in these cases; larvae do not pass to the L2 stage. Larvae cause discomfort and irritation to the eye.

5. To Study the Molecular Characterization of X-ray cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) gene and its associated Risk factors in Senile Cataract Patients attending a Tertiary Care Centre, Uttar Pradesh.

Nashra Afaq, R.Sujatha,

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Introduction: Ageing of the crystalline lens of the eye, which impairs vision, causes cataracts. Patients who have XRCC1, a DNA repair protein involved in single-strand breaks (SSBs) and the BER pathway, which is in charge of effectively repairing DNA damage, are more likely to develop cataracts.

Aim: To Study the Molecular Characterization with its Special Association to XRCC1 gene in Senile Cataract Patients at a tertiary care centre.

Material and Methods: This was a cross sectional study carried out in the Department of Microbiology & Ophthalmology of RMCH&RC for a period of one year i.e, April 2022 to April 2023. A total of 350 clinical patients were included in which 150 patient were confirmed as cataract positive patients. The 5ml of venous blood was collected in Ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid tubes. The DNA extraction for the detection of XRCC1gene was done using Qiagen DNA Extraction Kit as per manufactures guidelines, which was further confirmed by Rt-PCR.

Results: In the present study the Hypertension 76 (50.6%) was the most common disease associated with the cataract patients. The ratio of Females were more 90 (60%) compared to Males 60 (40%) with the maximum age of 51-60 been affected the most followed by 61-70 years. The other comorbidity included Diabetes). The prevalence of cataract in our study was found to be 42.8%.  The presence of XRCC1 gene was detected in all cataract positive patients,which was confirmed by PCR

Conclusion: The polymorphisms of DNA repair genes reduced their capacity to repair DNA damage, rendering the human body significantly more vulnerable to cancer or disorders associated with ageing. The current study's finding that the XRCC1 gene is associated with age-related cataract susceptibility supports the idea that XRCC1 plays a significant role in age-related cataract susceptibility. As a result, early screening and its molecular profiling will aid the clinician in both early diagnosis and early treatment.

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