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March 2021 Volume 7 Issue 1

“A Comparative Study of Two Disinfectants for Cleaning Various Intensive Care Unit Surfaces at A Tertiary Care Centre, Kanpur”

Deepak Sameer, R. Sujatha, Suneet Kr Yadav, Arunagiri D.

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Introduction: Nosocomial infections, also known as healthcare acquired infection, have become considerable threats to hospitalized patients, which results in increasing length of stay, medical costs and complication rates. Aim: This Study was undertaken to compare the effects of two disinfectants (1% glutaraldehyde and 70% isopropyl alcohol) for cleaning various ICU’s at a tertiary care centre, Kanpur.

Material and Methods: Samples were collected from bed, monitor surface and table of the NICU’s, PICU, MICU of Rama Hospital, Kanpur. Samples were collected before and after disinfection using appropriate disinfectants. After cleaning samples were collected after contact time of 20 minutes. For aerobic culture, samples were inoculated in liquid media like peptone water. After incubating for 24 hours at 37oC, the sample from the peptone water was inoculated on to one sets of blood agar plate, and incubated aerobically at 37oC for 48 hours. For anaerobic culture, samples was first inoculated in Robertson’s cooked meat medium and incubated anaerobically at 37oC for 7 days.

Results: The growth of aerobic BA plates showed bacterial colonies before fumigation in NICU (23colonies), MICU (4c) and PICU (3c) but after the use of isopropyl alcohol only in NICU (6c) were found. . The growth of aerobic BA plates showed bacterial growth before disinfection NICU (23c), MICU (4c) and PICU (3c) but after the use of glutaraldehyde only in NICU (2) were found. Clostridium spp. was seen before disinfection in NICU in 3 RCM tubes but after the use of isopropyl alcohol it was seen in one tube but after the use of glutaraldehyde, no Clostridium spp. was found. Thus, our study showed 30 colonies before disinfection which was reduced to 6 colonies after the use of isopropyl alcohol and reduced to 2 colonies after the use of glutaraldehyde after aerobic incubation.

Conclusion: Thus, our study showed 30 colonies before disinfection reduced to 6 colonies after the use of isopropyl alcohol and reduced to 2 colonies after the use of glutaraldehyde after aerobic incubation, and it was found that glutaraldehyde is better disinfectant than isopropyl alcohol for both aerobic and anaerobic organisms.

“To Study the Bacteriological Profile, Drug Resistance Pattern, Risk Factors Associated with Urinary Tract Infection in Diabetic Patients at A Tertiary Care Hospital Kanpur”

Deepak Sameer, R. Sujatha, Suneet Kr Yadav, Arunagiri D.

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Introduction: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a major problem in diabetics. Changes in host in defense mechanisms, the presence of diabetic cystopathy and micro-vascular disease in the kidneys may play a role in the higher incidence of UTI in diabetic patients. Urinary tract infection, such as pyelonephritis, renal or perinephric abscess, bacteremia and renal papillary necrosis occur more commonly in diabetic patients, acute renal failure is twice as likely to develop in bacteraemic patients.

Aim: - The study aimed to determine the “the bacteriological profile, drug resistance pattern, risk factors associated with urinary tract infection in diabetic patients.

Material and Methods: A total of 50 diabetic patients who were aged between 35 to 80 were selected for the study. Mid stream urine was collected following the standard protocol and immediately processed in the laboratory. Routine urinary microscopy and urine culture was done in all cases. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done following CLSI guidelines 2020.

Results: In the present study, out of 50 samples prevalence of urinary tract infection in diabetic was (26%). Males are more affected than females and in age group > 55 years. The risk factor was patients with diabetic blood sugar level > 140 mg/dl. Most common organism isolated in urine cultures was Candida spp (30%), E.coli ( 25%), Klebsila spp. (15%), Staphylococcus spp. (15%), Proteus spp. (15%).GPC isolates were 100% sensitive for Gentamicin, Amikacin, Vancomycin, Teicoplanin & Linezolid and GNB were and 88% sensitive for Meropenem & Imipenem and 100% sensitive for Colistin & Polymixin B.

Conclusion: Since the prevalence of UTI in diabetic patient was 26%, this study concludes that, Routine urine culture test should be carried out for all to detect prevalence and risk factors, and every positive case should be treated with appropriate antibiotic therapy.

“Microbiological Profile and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Bacterial Isolates Associated With Intra Uterine Contraceptive Users among Females of Reproductive Age at A Tertiary Care Hospital In Kanpur”

Suneet kr. Yadav, R. Sujatha, Deepak Sameer, Jyoti, Arunagiri D.

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Introduction: The use of contraceptives is important in preventing unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. However, the use of various contraceptive methods could expose women to microbial infections.

Aim: To study the Microbiological profile and Antimicrobial Susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates associated with Intra uterine Contraceptive Users among females of Reproductive Age at a tertiary care hospital in Kanpur. 

Material and Methods:  In this study, high vaginal swab samples were collected from 50 women between 20 & 45 years of age. The samples were taken from the cervical canal with sterile cotton swab after cleaning the vaginal area with sterile water and inserting moistened sterile speculum into the cervix. The use of contraceptives among different age groups was determined. The microbial floras of asymptomatic individuals were assessed biochemical identification of the isolated microorganisms and their susceptibility was carried out on the samples collected and reported by CLSI guideline 2020.

Results: In the present study out of 50 samples the women using IUDs showed 6(12%) organisms out of which Candida albicans was(2%), Candida krusei was(2%), Staphylococcus lugdinensis was (2%), Staphylococcus epidermidis was (2%), Klebsiella pneumoniae was (2%) and E.coli was (2%).The GPC isolates were 100% sensitive to Vancomycin, Linezolid,Teicoplanine,Tetracycline, Gentamicin, Azithromicin, On the other hand the GNB isolates were 100% sensitive to Imipenem, Meropenem, Polymixin, Colistin.

Conclusion: This study shows that more strains of bacteria and fungi were isolated from women in age 24-40 years women sampled and indicated that the more predominant isolates in symptomatic individuals using contraceptives users.

“Isolation, Identification and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Bacterial Isolates from Fish Sold In Retail Market at Kalyanpur, Kanpur, Up”

Suneet kr. Yadav, Dr. R.Sujatha, Deepak Sameer bind, Arunagiri D

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Introduction:-The uncontrolled use of antibiotics increases the emergence of resistant bacteria and makes it difficult to treat the infections. Development of antibiotic resistance in environmental bacteria has become a serious threat and growing problem for the entire population worldwide. Aim:-To study the microbiological profile and its antibiotic susceptibility pattern from fish sold in retail market at kalyanpur Kanpur, UP. Material and Methods:-100 Fish Meat and fish intestine sample was collected and preceded under aseptic precaution. Bacterial isolates from the samples on two different bacteriological culture media such as MacConkey agar and blood agar. Mac Conkey agar was used as a selective differential media for differentiating lactose fermenters from non-lactose fermenters .The bacterial isolate were identified by standard bio-chemical tests, Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) was done on Mueller Hinton agar (Hi-Media Laboratories, India) by Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method using Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute guidelines (CLSI 2020). Results: - In this study, out of 100 samples 45 were culture positive and 55 were culture negative. Predominant organism was E.coli 31(68%) followed by Proteus mirabilis 11(24%), Klebsiella oxytoca 8 (17%) and Enterococcus 5 (11%). Amikacin, Piperacillin Tazobactam, Polymyxin B and Colistin were 100% sensitive for GNB where as Enterococcus spp was 100% sensitive to HLG, HLS, Vancomycin, Linezolid. Conclusion: - This study therefore confirms the presence of some pathogenic bacteria isolates from the fish which are of public health significance and indicative of health risk in contacting diseases associated with these organisms. Compliance with standard microbiological measures to prevent contamination by these organisms becomes very necessary and should be enforced. Transfer of antibiotic resistance from these bacteria to pathogenic bacteria can became a serious threat for the human population in the coming future. The usage of high dose of preservatives and antibacterial agents in the fishes during storage can be avoided.

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