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December 2021 Volume 7 Issue 4

Prevalence of BLA CTX-M, Gene in Escherichia Coli Isolated From Urinary Tract Infection at a Tertiary Care Centre in Kanpur

R. Sujatha, Deepak Sameer, Suneet Kr Yadav, Nashra A ,SarahK

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Back ground: Escherichia coli is the most common organism that causes UTI. However, the incidence of community acquired UTI caused by Extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing strains of E. coli, in particular CTX-M genes, is on the rise worldwide.

Aim: To determine the prevalence of ESBLs (bla CTX M) produced by E. coli from urinary isolates.

Material & Methods: The present study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology, Rama Medical College, and Kanpur over a period from Oct 2021-Dec 2021. It was approved by the Institutional Ethical Committee. Escherichia coli isolated from urinary isolates from various clinical departments including OPD and IPD of all age groups and both genders were included. Identification of isolates was carried out using conventional biochemical Methods and All the E. coli isolates was phenotypic ally tested for ESBL production by double disk diffusion test, According to CLSI guidelines, 2021. After screening for ESBL, the CTX-M, genes were detected among ESBL- producing isolates using PCR.

Results: Out of 110 urine samples , females were (50.90%) and males were 49.09%, growth was seen in 41/110(37.27%) and E.coli was seen in 20/41(48.78%), ESBL was detected in 13/20( 65%) of E. coli that carried BLA (CTX-M) genes in 46.15%(6/13).

Conclusion: Due to the high resistance of E. coli to beta-lactam drugs in this region, these drugs have limited effects for treatment of UTI in outpatient. The frequency of CTX beta-lactamases is high which indicates the spread of drug resistance. Proper infection control policy and antibiotic stewardship should be implicated to combat this resistance

“Investigation of the Bacterial etiology of ocular and per ocular Infections and testing its antimicrobial susceptibility pattern with association factors among patients attending eye unit of Rama Tertiary care Hospital Kanpur, India.”

Nashra A, R. Sujatha, Deepak Sameer, Suneet Kr Yadav, Sarah K

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Introduction: The infection in the eye is one of the major public health problem in the developing countries specially India, Indonesia etc. Bacteria are major cause of eye infections that lead to loss of vision. The objective of the study is to study the Bacterial etiology of ocular and per ocular Infections and test it’s AST.

Aim and Objective: To investigate the Bacterial profile of ocular and per ocular Infections and testing its antimicrobial susceptibility pattern with association factors among patients.

Material and Methods: Our study is a cross-sectional study, conducted in the Department of Microbiology and Ophthalmology for the period of 1 year i.e, February 2019 to February 2021. Specimens from the ocular and per ocular areas were collected from a total of 250 patients who visited the eye unit of the Tertiary Care hospital.

Results: Out of the total 250 samples taken in our study, participants with ocular and per ocular infections, 180 (72%) were culture positive. In our study the number of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were 120 (66.6%) and 60 (33.3%) respectively. Among the growth Staphylococcus aureus was the most common isolated in Gram-positive bacteria and in Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli was the most predominant isolate.

Conclusion: The gram positive bacteria were the most common isolates. The identification of the causal bacteria and antimicrobial sensitivity tests are mandatory to select the effective drug for the treatment of eye infections and prevent the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

“Prevalence of Candida Species Causing Blood Stream Infection in Critically Ill Patients in Kanpur Up”

Suneet kr. Yadav, R.Sujatha, Deepak Sameer binds

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Introduction: BSI by Candida, also known as candidemia, is defined as the isolation of Candida species from at least one blood culture in patients with symptoms or signs of a systemic infection. Candidemia was defined as the isolation of Candida in blood culture accompanied by fever, chills or hypotension and other corresponding clinical symptoms and signs and the exclusion of specimen contamination. The incidence of candidemia expressed as cases per 100,000 inhabitants has been reported to range from 1-8 cases and the prevalence was found to be 6.9 per 1000 cases according to a survey of Intensive Care Units (ICUs) worldwide.

Aim: To aim the identify the prevalence of Candida species causing BSI, in kanpur UP.

Material and Methods: This study was being conducted in the Department of Microbiology Rama Medical College Hospital and Research Centre Kanpur. A total of 100 specimens were inoculated into the blood culture bottles and incubated at 37°C for a maximum period of seven days. If positive then they blood was subcultured on cystene lactose electrolyte defieciency agar (CLED) incubated at 37°C. Gram staining was performed from the colony and the morphology of yeast cells was noted. Germ tube test was performed from colonies for presumptive identification of C. albican. Colonies from CLED were plated onto CHROM agar that is claimed to facilitate the isolation by colorimetric presumptive identification and were incubated at 37°C for 48 hours.

Results: A total of 100 blood samples, isolates of Candida species were obtained from 07(7%) positive blood culture cases as per inclusion criteria during the study period. Candida albicans (4/100, 4%), Candida parapsilosis (1/100, 1%) was the predominant species causing candidemia followed by Candida tropicalis (1/100, 1%), C. dubliniensis (1/100,1%), Candida glabrata 1/100, 1%), Candida auris and others species (00/100, 00%),

Conclusion: Even though CHROM agar helps with identification at a lower cost as compared to others automated methods, which is useful in countries having low resources.

“Screening and Isolation of Nasal Colonization Drug Resistance MRSA in Oral Cancer Patients in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Eastern India”

Nashra A, R. Sujatha, Deepak Sameer, Suneet Kr Yadav, Sarah K

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Introduction: Cancer patients are at risk for developing serious infections. Due to immune compromised status many times these patients may get infected with normal resident flora and ultimately become infected. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aurous (MRSA) is a common cause of healthcare-associated infection worldwide. Immuno compromised patients are more susceptible to develop infection from own colonized MRSA.

Aim and Objective: To Screen and Isolate Nasal Colonisation Drug Resistance MRSA in Oral Cancer Patients in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Eastern India.

Material and Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Microbiology, RMCH & RC, Mandhana, and Kanpur for a period of 1 year August 2020 to August 2021. The Nasal swabs were collected from patients within 24 hours of admission. The samples were transported to the Laboratory soon after the collection. Anterior nacres of 100 participants having oral cancer were screened for colonization of Staphylococcus aurous. Isolates were identified as Staphylococcus auras as per standard protocol and were further subjected to see the production of MRSA as per CLSI criteria.

Results: Total In our study of 60 patients the Nasal sample were taken of the Cancer patients and there were different isolates found at the very first time survey . The table below shows the number of isolates found in our study. There were 60 patients in our study which was divided into two groups according to treatment plan, first group was given chemotherapy (n=40) and second group was given radiotherapy (n= 20) A total of 30 (50 %) cases were having Staphylococcus aurous in their nasal cavity out of which 23 (38.3%) were MRSA

Conclusion: If patient’s nasal flora is showing MSSA initially, it must be taken seriously and should be treated as there is high chance in MSSA flora for development of MRSA following various treatment strategies. As patient might develop MRSA colonization after chemotherapy and radiotherapy which may further be the reason for resistant infection in immune-compromised cancer patients

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