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A Study on Constraints Faced by Villagers Regarding Agriculture of Different Districts of Uttar Pradesh (India)

Mohd. Mosif Raja, Jitendra Ojha, Bharat Tiwari

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A study was done in the month of October 2017 and study was done by preparing survey schedule on the pilot study bases and villages were selected as per suitability and convenience of the students. The selected villages were Rajepur (District Hardoi), Jalalabad (District Kannoj), Kukradev (District Kanpur) and Bhairopur Khajuri and Gauriganj (District of Amethi). Eight respondents were selected randomly for the study from each village, thus total 40 respondents were selected for the study. The study revealed that the constraints were, unavailability of information sources/center regarding agriculture (57.50%), followed by unavailability of irrigation sources (55.00%), lack of knowledge regarding agriculture production technology (50.00%), less adaptability of new practices due to risk of economic loss (40.00%), Poor marketing channel (35.00%), lack of knowledge regarding plant protection measures (32.50%), poor transportation facilities (30.00%) and unavailability of storage and processing facilities (17.50%) respectively.

Work Out the Marketing Cost, Marketing Margin and Price Spread under Selected Marketing Channels for Pigeon Pea in Bundelkhand Zone

Gajendra kumar, Jitendra Ojha, Deepankar Tiwari ,Bharat Tiwari Ankit Tiwari ,K.K Mishra Tejsavi Singh, Nitish Sharma

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Field pea is one of the important Rabi pulse crop belong to the family fabaceae and botanically knows as Pisum Sativum. Pea grown all over the world and area about 1190372 hectare producing 8924951 mt. (according to Ministry of Agriculture Government of India 2015-16).In India field pea is grown over an area of 313.50 thousand hectare with a production of about 2560.00 thousand mt with a productivity of 8.2 quintal per hectare. Uttar Pradesh is the major field pea growing state .Uttar Pradesh alone produce about 60 per cent of total pea production in India. Besides, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Bihar are the major field pea producing states. In Uttar Pradesh Pea is grown all over an area of 53.85 thousand hectare with production of about 534.06 thousand metric tonnes. and productivity 9.91 quintal per hectare, (according to Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India 2015-16).The marketing channels for field pea are rather complex in the sense that they involve several stages of processing before it changed to the final consumable farm. The channels involved certain amount of marketing cost and marketing margins. There are various marketing channels for calculating marketing margin, marketing producers share and Price spread

Cover Crop Mixture Diversity and Function

Sachin Tiwari

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The diversity-productivity hypothesis proposes that increasing plant diversity increases average biomass productivity. The goal of this study was to review this hypothesis in the context of cover crop mixtures. The lower yielding legumes lowered the average productivity of the low functional richness category as compared to the high functional richness category where the higher yielding grasses and brassicas compensated for the low production of the legumes. In terms of practical cover crop management, there was no evidence of any mixture out-yielding the highest yielding monoculture at each site. While the diversity productivity hypothesis was supported—this paper suggests a rather simple, mathematical mechanism by which increasing diversity can increase average productivity.

Need Based Fertilizer Management Using Chlorophyll Meter and Leaf Colour Chart

Arun Shankar, R. K. Gupta

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Application of broad based recommended nitrogenous fertilizer often lead to under or over application due to large field to field variability with regards to nitrogen (N) availability. Over application of N often leads to environmental pollution and poor recovery of applied nitrogen. The solution to this problem is synchronizing N supply and crop demand and step up or step down fertilizer N accordingly rather than broad based application. This has been achieved by need based N management tools viz. leaf colour chart (LCC) and chlorophyll meter. Both LCC and chlorophyll meter indirectly estimate crop N status. Leaf colour chart uses reflectance of green colour from the leaf as measure of crop N status while chlorophyll meter indicates crop N status in terms of chlorophyll values which are indirect estimate of crop N status. Researchers throughout the globe have proven the credibility of need based fertilizer N management through these gadgets in agriculture settings in many crops including rice, wheat, maize etc.

Detection of Mycoflora Associated with Different Seed’s of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

Shubham Singh, Ramesh Singh , P.C. Singh

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In dry seed inspection, only eight genotypes exhibited light to dark discolouration of seed in the range of 3.0 to 7.0 per cent. The seeds of other two genotypes (NDB-2 and NDB-1173) did not show any discolouration. In standard blotter method, twelve fungal species belonging to nine genera, namely, Alternaria alternata, A. triticina, Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Bipolaris sorokiniana, Curvularia lunata, Drechslera graminea, D. spicifera, Fusarium moniliforme, Mucor sp., Penicillium notatum and Rhizopus nigricans were detected. Genotype RD-2503 was found to harbour all the twelve fungal species. Alternaria alternata was associated with the seeds of all the genotypes tested while A. triticina observed on 7 genotypes. The fungal species B. sorokiniana, C. lunata and D. graminea were associated with 8 genotypes and A. flavus was associated with 7 genotypes. D. spicifera and F. moniliforme were associated with 6 genotypes while Aspergillus niger and Mucor sp. showed association with 5 genotypes. P. notatum and R. nigricans showed less presence. The agar plate method, yielded the same twelve fungal species belonging to nine genera. Genotype RD-2503 harboured maximum number of fungi followed by NDB-1597, RD-2508, RD 2552, NDB-1592, NDB-4, NDB-1, NDB-2, NDB-3 and NDB-1173. Alternaria alternata was observed on seeds of all the genotypes except NDB 1173. B. sorokiniana and C. lunata were associated with 7 genotypes while Aspergillus flavus, D. graminea and Mucor sp. were associated with 6 genotypes. A. niger, F. moniliforme and D. spicifera were associated with 5 genotypes where as P. notatum and R. nigricans showed association with the seeds of 4 genotypes only. Due to treatment of seeds prior to isolations by standard blotter and agar plate methods, not only the colonies of different fungi were reduced. During present investigation, it was observed that more fungal species were associated with shrivelled seeds followed by discoloured ones. Apparently healthy looking seeds showed least fungal association.

Effect of Weed Management Practices on Weed Flora, Growth Attributes and Yield of Direct Seeded Rice (Oryza Sativa L.)

Ajay Singh, R.S. Singh, R.P. Singh R.K. Pathak Manoj Kumar, Deepak Pandey

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A Field Experiment entitled “Effect of Weed Management Practices on Growth and Yield of Direct Seeded Rice (Oryzasativa L.)” was conducted at Agronomy Research Farm of Narendra Deva University of Agriculture And Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad (U.P.) During Kharif season of 2015-16 and 2016-17 with twelve treatments in three teplications. The Density of BLWs, narrow leaved weeds and sedges as well as the total weed density and dry weight were recorded significantly less With weedy check as compared to rest of the treatments. All the growth and yield attributes Viz. Plant height, dry matter, LAI, panicle length, test weight as well as grain and straw yield were significantly higher in Pendimethalinefbbispyribac-Na + HW 40 DAS. With respect to economics, maximum net return was recorded with Pendimethalinefbbispyribac-Na + HW 40 DAS and B:C ratio with Pendimethalinefbbispyribac-Na + HW 40 DAS. Significantly higher and lower values of yield attributes and yield, as well as lower and higher values of density and dry matter of weeds were recorded with weed free and weedy treatment, respectively. Pendimethalinefbbispyribac-Na + HW 40 DAS proved superior with respect to weed control efficiency and crop yield and economics followed by Pendimethalinefbbispyribac-Na 1000 Fb 25 G and Oxadiragylfbpretilachlor 100 Fb 1000g.

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