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June 2019 Volume 5 Issue 2

Tuberculosis

Mr. K.Vinay Kumar, Dr. Nilam Nigam

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Tuberculosis is caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis; belonging to mycobacteriaceae family. The most frequently used diagnostic methods for tuberculosis is tuberculin skin test, acid-fast stain, culture, and polymerase chain reaction. Due to presence of mycolic acid on the cell surface of bacteria it does not allow stain to absorb so as acid fast stain such as Ziehl-Neelsen, or fluorescent stains such as auramine are used instead to identify M. tuberculosis in microscope examination. It is a rod shape bacilli often looks wrapped together, due to the presence of fatty acids in the cell wall that stick together. In 2011, there are 8.7 million new cases of active tuberculosis worldwide among them 13% of patients are involved in co-infection with the human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]. Estimated that there were 310,000 incident cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, caused by organisms resistant to isoniazid and rifampicin, among patients who were reported to have tuberculosis. A total of 84 countries have reported cases of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis, a subset of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis with added resistance to all fluoroquinolones plus any of the three injectable antituberculosis drugs, kanamycin, amikacin, and capreomycin.


Anaemia Among Pregnant Women: Does The Gestational Age Matter?

Firoza Bano, Anju Gahlot

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Background - Anaemia affects 1.62 billion people globally with about estimated 56 million pregnant women to be anaemic. In India anaemia is widely prevalent in all age groups especially among the most vulnerable groups, the pregnant women. It is a major factor responsible for maternal mortality.
Aims - To estimate the prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women and its association with the gestational age in the urban areas of Uttar Pradesh.
Methods and Material - In this Cross-sectional study, 207 pregnant women were selected through simple random sampling method, interviewed and tested for haemoglobin status. Collected data were analysed by a software statistical package for social sciences (SPSS Version 21.0) & Microsoft Excel 2007.
Results - A high prevalence of anaemia 78.7% was observed. Status of anaemia increases with advancing gestational age.
Conclusion - Anaemia continues to be a major public health problem and the increasing trends indicating the failure of existing approaches to alleviate this burden. Therefore, further improvements are likely to need in the ongoing programmes that address the nutritional determinants of low haemoglobin especially during pregnancy.


Pseudoxanthoma elasticum: A case report

Ruchika Agarwal

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Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is a rare genetic disorder that mainly involves the skin, eyes, and cardiovascular system. We are reporting a case of pseudoxanthoma elasticum which involves neck, together with angioid streaks of fundi, but without cardiovascular events. Skin biopsy specimen was taken and was stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) that revealed clumping and fragmentation of elastic fibers. Conclusion: These features confirmed histopathological diagnosis of PXE.


Tuberculous Mastitis: A Case Report

Prapti Gupta, Vidushi Mishra, Parul Singhal, Shachi, Manoj Kumar Meghwani

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Tuberculous mastititis is an uncommon clinical entity and usually affects women from the Indian subcontinent and Africa. It often mimics breast carcinoma and pyogenic breast abscess. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a very essential diagnostic tool when other routine laboratory investigations are not helpful in reaching to the conclusion. Tuberculosis of the breast is an uncommon presentation of tuberculosis even in countries where the incidence of tuberculosis is high. In most of the cases radiological imaging is not diagnostic. Treatment with standard antituberclar drugs was associated with complete resolution of the lesion.


Antibacterial Activity of Honey against Clinical Isolates of MRSA, From Various Clinical Samples at a Teritiary Care Centre, Kanpur.

Deepak S, R. Sujatha,Nashra A

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Background - The continuous use of antibiotics in clinical practice has been the direct cause of the development of multiple antibiotic resistances among bacteria causing human infection. Therefore, the need for novel alternative antimicrobial strategies has renewed interest in therapeutic use natural products of ancient remedies like turmeric, honey, ginger and others exhibiting antibacterial properties.
Aims - To find out the efficacy of antibacterial activity of locally available honey against Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Methicillin Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) isolates.
Material And Methods - A prospective study was carried out from June 2018 to December 2018 in the Department of Microbiology, RMCHRC, Mandhana Kanpur, the antibacterial activity of dabur pasteurised honey was evaluated against the bacterial strains of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. Their antibacterial sensitivity pattern was tested using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion susceptibility testing technique of CLSI along with other commonly used antimicrobials
Result - Out of 140 clinical samples, 59 isolates were of Staphylococcus aureus. This includes 22 isolates of MRSA out of which 20(90.9%) isolates were sensitive to honey & 37 isolates of (MSSA) Methicillin sensitive S. aureus out of which 30(81.08%) isolates were sensitive to honey. Antibiotics susceptibility testing was also carried out by using other commonly used antibiotics which include Erythromycin, Ciprofloxacin, Tetracycline, Ampicillin Levofloxacin, Clindamycin, Penicillin G, Linezolid, Vancomycin. All MRSA were sensitive to linezolid where as MSSA were sensitive to all except penicillin.
Conclusion – The excellent antibacterial activity of honey against MRSA isolates indicates the usefulness of honey against bacterial infections.


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